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Full text of "Primary phonography. An introduction to Isaac Pitman's system of phonetic shorthand; with a series of original exercises .."

THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 




fjtn 



LA wren 



. 0. 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



ISAAC PITMAN'S SYSTEM OF PHONETIC SHORTHAND; 



. O/J *f., 

4 t A i ^ /!> ^ H'^/ ^ 
^cne$ of timmuitl mxetns^s, *<4// , 

t-r i * c * ^^<ttj8 c 






WRITTEN PRINCIPALLY IN THE SIMPLE CHARACTERS OF THE 
PHONOGRAPHIC ALPHABET, WITHOUT CONTRACTION. 



BY 

IDA C. CRADDOCK, 

TEACHER OF PHONOGRAPHY AT GIRARD COLLEGE, PHILADELPHIA. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR 

1882. 



COPYRIGHT. 
IDA C. CRADDOCK. 

1882. 



STACK ANNEX 




PREFACE. 



T1THEN Tiro, Cicero's freedman, invented the first known 

* method of shorthand reporting, his one idea was to find 

a way of taking down speeches verbatim and in the shortest 

possible time. And this has been the aim of the many short- 

hand inventors who have flourished since his day. But for a 

5J long time, the systems of Tiro and his successors were doomed 

to failure. Founded, as they were, wholly or in part, upon the 

: imperfect longhand alphabets, they were almost as lengthy and 

23 cumbersome as the longhand whose place they were intended 

^ to take. 

In 1837, Mr. Isaac Pitman, of Bath, England, gave to the 

5? world what we may call a natural system. It had for its alpha- 

* bet signs representing the sounds of the human voice; and 

^ "sound writing," or '^phonography," by reason of its briefness, 

simplicity, and the natural arrangement of its characters, at 

once came into use. 

fj Since that time others have modified this phonetic short- 

; hand of Mr. Pitman's ; and he himself has made improve- 

' ments in his system, which have caused it to be preferred to all 

other systems, both in England and America. Among other 

things, he has compiled a shorthand dictionary, containing 

some twenty-six thousand words, of great convenience as an 

authority. 

But Isaac Pitman builded better than he knew. Shorthand 



4484.00 



IV PREFACE. 

was at first intended for the reporting of public speeches in 
Parliament, the court-room, and the church. But, by degrees, 
its use spread to all public halls; then to the private rooms 
of literary men, where long articles were to be written, or ex- 
tensive notes taken from books; until at length it has invaded 
the railway office, the manufactory, and the counting-room. 
Most large business houses now employ shorthand writers, 
whose duties are simply to report and copy out letters dictated 
to them by the head of the firm. 

With such a record, it is plain that phonography daily grows 
in importance as a professional study. To the ambitious 
young men and women who are working their way up from 
the foot of the business ladder, the phonographer's profession 
holds out a helping hand ; for it offers larger salaries than any 
other profession, for the time and money spent in acquiring it. 

But this is not the only use of phonography. It is also val- 
uable as an aid to correct pronunciation. In using it, we are 
obliged to write every word according to the sounds; and so it 
follows that we must be able to analyze those sounds correctly. 
Phonography enables us to do this, as it possesses in its alpha- 
bet a representation of every sound used in the correct articu- 
lation of our language; and so easy of understanding is the 
system, that any little child ought to be able, in a few lessons, 
to give the sound of every word it meets. 

We have said that the final goal of all shorthand writers has 
been verbatim reporting. In their eagerness to attain this end, 
they have not thought it worth while to dwell upon the pri- 
mary forms, but have hurried on to those which are more 
abbreviated. Among those who have taught longest and 
most successfully, however, this is now felt to be a mistake. 
''Writing by sound" is in most cases a new thing to the 
student, and he should be well drilled in the first principles. 



PREFACE. V 

Until he is able to write out any word whatever in the full, pri- 
mary style, with all the sounds expressed, he ought not to take 
a step beyond. Let the elements be thoroughly mastered, and 
afterward the abbreviations will be learned easily enough. 
The pupil should be able to write in the primary style without 
thinking any more about the forms of the letters than he 
would in longhand. He should not hesitate over a word, for 
in reporting, the man who hesitates is lost. And to secure the 
needed facility, he should be well drilled in the writing and 
reading of exercises in primary phonography. 

The need of a book that would give due prominence to this 
primary style is apparent. To the best of the author's knowl- 
edge, no such book has yet been published in any of the short- 
hand systems. 

It is, therefore, with the hope of rilling this vacant corner 
that the present little volume is given to the public. It is not 
expected nor desired that it will supersede any of the short- 
hand text books now in use ; but it is intended as an exponent 
of the primary style, and an introduction to Isaac Pitman's 
"Phonetic Shorthand." , 

It is believed that the method here adopted will be useful in 
teaching pupils of all ages. Every new principle is explained 
in detail, and is illustrated by a reading exercise. Thus, at the 
end of the rules for upward and downward L, a word exercise 
on these rules will be found ; and this is followed by a reading 
exercise, " Polly Powell's Opal," in which occur a number of 
L-words under the rules. The author's aim has been not only 
to furnish a drill on each new principle, but also a series of 
little stories, etc., in which, it is hoped, even an indifferent 
pupil may become interested enough to read on to the end of 
the book, and so grow to understand primary phonography 
in spite of himself. 



VI PREFACE. 

This volume is the outgrowth of the author's experience as 
teacher of phonography in Girard College. In this College, 
and in the Phonetic Shorthand Section of the Franklin Insti- 
tute of Philadelphia, the method here set forth has heen 
adopted i. e., thorough drilling in Primary Phonography be- 
fore teaching a single abbreviation. Each pupil is required 
to write original letters in Primary Phonography to his instruc- 
tor; these are corrected, answered in the same style, and re- 
turned to him. He thus becomes proficient in writing the 
words used in ordinary intercourse (which are the most need- 
ful for a reporter to have at his fingers' ends). Copying ideas, 
from a book or otherwise, is discouraged. The pupil is re- 
quired to carry the words directly from the lips of a speaker 
or reader to the paper; and he is also required to translate 
his own ideas directly from his brain to the paper, without any 
intermediate longhand. Then, when he has learned to think 
in Primary Phonography, he is allowed to proceed to the ab- 
breviations of phonetic shorthand. 

If this book shall make the path of any tired young pho- 
nographers a little more smooth, it will have fulfilled its pur- 
pose. 

IDA C. CRADDOCK. 

PHILADELPHIA, March 31, 1832. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

BASIS OF THE PHONOGRAPHIC ALPHABET .... 9 
ALPHABET. CONSONANTS ....... 10 

ALPHABET. VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS 11 

GENERAL HINTS . . . . . . . . .12 

WORD EXERCISE ON VOWELS ....... 14 

WORD EXERCISE ON DIPHTHONGS 15 

SENTENCES WITH FIRST-PLACE VOWELS 16 

SENTENCES WITH SECOND-PLACE VOWELS . . . .16 

SENTENCES WITH THIRD-PLACE VOWELS 16 

READING EXERCISE 17 

RULES FOR PLACING VOWELS 18 

ILLUSTRATIVE WORDS TO BE WRITTEN IN PHONOGRAPHY . 19 

BEADING EXERCISES 20 

UPWARD AND DOWNWARD R .22 

WORD EXERCISE ON R AND CH 24 

ILLUSTRATIVE WORDS TO BE WRITTEN IN PHONOGRAPHY . 24 
READING EXERCISE ON R AND OH. . . . . .25 

UPWARD AND DOWNWARD L . . . . . . .31 

WORD EXERCISE ON' L . ... 32 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

READING EXERCISE ON L 33 

. 

THE ASPIRATE, II . . . . . . . . .35 

WORD EXERCISE ox II 07 

ILLUSTRATIVE WORDS TO BE WRITTEN IN PHONOGRAPHY . 37 

READING EXERCISE ON H 38 

W AND Y DIPHTHONGS . , . . . ^ . .39 

DISSYLLABIC DIPHTHONGS 39 

WORD EXERCISE ON DIPHTHONGS ...... 40 

READING EXERCISE ON DIPHTHONGS 41 

PUNCTUATION, ETC. ... % .... 40 

NOMINAL CONSONANTS 47 

CONSONANT INITIALS .... %* . . . 47 

4 

DOUBLE LETTERS 

WORD EXERCISE ON DOUBLE LETTERS 48 

READING EXERCISE ON DOUBLE LETTERS . . . .49 

BEADING EXERCISES. 

1. WHAT PUSSY SAID 55 

2. WHAT THE MOUSE SAID TO HER CHILDREN . . .56 

3. WHAT HAPPENED ........ 57 

4. THE POND-LILY. ... 58 

* <k 

5. MY ANT'S Cows Gl 

6. THE TRUMPET-VINE 65 

7. PLANTS AND ANIMALS . . . . . . .70 

8. THE THREE KINGDOMS 77 

9. A FEW WORDS TO THE READEB 86 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



v 

"Of'l, 

PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. ^ 

BASIS OF THE ALPHABET. 









The plan of the Phonographic Alphabet is very sim- 
ple. Two circles, each cut by two diameters at right 
angles to each other, as in the above examples, give 
the basis for the consonant outlines. With the ex- 
ception of the upward R S , the simple, straight lines 
represent explosive sounds, while the curves represent 
those sounds which are more flowing, and which may 
therefore be prolonged indefinitely. (Compare the con- 
sonant sounds in pipe and fife.} 

Omitting w 6/ / ', wh ,/ , h / ^ , and down ward r"^, 

consonants made by a given organ are written in the 
same general direction (see profile above), thus : 

9, &;/, v; ........ \\ 



Teeth, t, d; th, th; s, z; ..... !!(()) 
Palate, ch,j; sA, zh; Z, upward r, y ; 

I / )) 

Throat and nose, k, <j ; m, w, ng; ... s- 



10 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



THE PHONOGRAPHIC ALPHABET. 

CONSONANTS. 



EXPLODENTS. 

Name. Sound. 



CONTINUANTS. 

Name. Sound. 



p \ 


pee as in pay 


F 


\. e/'' as in /e w 


B \ 


bee 


" bay 


y 


V^ fee 


" view 


T | 


tee 


" rie 


Th 


(^ z'A 


" thigh 


D 1 


dee 


" die 


Th 


(^ f/iee 


" thy 


Ch / 


chay 


" cAest 


S 


) es 


" seal 


J / 


^y 


" jest 


Z 


\ zee 


" zeal 


K 


kay 


" A;ic/t 


Sh 


J ish 


" master 


G 


yy 


" ^^ 


Zh 


J zhee 


" measure 






NASALS. 






M x X 


em 


" sum 


N 


^^/ en 


" sun 








Ng 


^*S ing 


" suw,^ 






LIQUIDS. 






L f ( 


strike) ^ 


" lull 


R 


~\(%3&a 


r" air 



ray 



COALESCENTS. 

^tch ! Y /' 

ASPIRATE LETTERS. 

( 8tr u ^ e ) 



yes 



H / Gl^ 
Wh breath-?/; C/ ( 6tr u p ke ) whay 



as in Aitch 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 11 

Remarks. Where the consonant sounds group them- 
selves naturally in pairs (as p and o, s and z), a light 
sound is represented by a thin stroke, and the corre- 
sponding heavy sound by a thick stroke. 

After the consonant outline of a word is written, the 
vowel sounds are rilled in by means of the dots and 
dashes given below. It will be seen that each vowel 
sign is here placed to a consonant, , and takes a differ- 
ent sound, according as it is placed at the beginning, 
middle, or end of the consonant. 

SIMPLE VOWELS. 

Light. 

1. A as in at '| j 1. O as in not ~| 

2. E " met -I i 2. U " nut -I 



3. I 


it 


\ 3. OO 


foot 


_ 




Heavy. 






1 . Ah as in 


father * 


< 1. Aw as in 


ought 





2. A 


say 


| 2. O 


no 


- 




\ 






3. E 


he 


\ 3. OO " 


too 






i 








DIPHTHONGS. 






I as in 


by v 


U as in 


few 


Ci 


Ow 


COM; A 


Ea, ei, or eo 






Oi 


toy * 


as in real, seeing, 


theory 


/, 



The signs for diphthongs, piven above, are used only for convenience. The 
sound which each represents is, in reality, a combination of two simple vowels. 

Thus / is com posed of ah-ee; Ow,ofo-ou; Oi,ofaw-i; U, of i-oo. 



12 PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 

GENERAL HINTS. 

1. In writing, the elbow should be turned out, and 

the pen or pencil held so that the letter \ b can be 
struck with ease. The best way to hold a pen is be- 
tween the first and second fingers, steadying its move- 
ments with the thumb. With the pen in this position, 
the pupil will find that he can much more easily form 
those characters which are most difficult of execution 
(the horizontal curves in particular). 

2. At first, the pupil should write slowly and with 
great care. When he has learned to draw the charac- 
ters correctly and elegantly, rapid writing will be easy; 
but if he tries to write fast, rather than well, he will 
find too late, in his illegible writing, the mistake he 
has made. 

3. The best size for the consonants is one-sixth 
of an inch in length. Be careful to make all the charac- 
ters about the same length. 

4. The consonant outline of a word is always written 
first, and the vowels or diphthongs put in afterward. 

5. The consonants of a word should be joined to 
each other, and the whole outline written without lift- 
ing the pen. 

6. In writing the heavy curves, make them thickest 
in the middle, and gradually taper them to the ends, 

thus; ^( ) J 

7. Horizontal letters should be made on the line, 
or slightly above it; never under the line; thus, 

^"^ ^">->^ ; not 



.PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 13 

8. L and Sh, when standing alone, are written, L 
upward and &h downward. When joined with other 
consonants, they may be written either up or down, as 
is most convenient. 

9. The first sloping or vertical consonant should rest 



on 



the line. Example, S ship; / check; / 



rain ; s^r Mary ; \ cape. 

10. Dash vowels should be written at right angles to 
the consonant to which they are placed. Thus, I" toe ; 

[coat; */ shoe; \ thaw; V. foe. They must 

not, however, touch the consonant, as that might occa- 
sion mistakes. 

1 1. Remember that the sounds of a word follow each 
other in regular order, from left to right, and from top 
to bottom, just as they would in longhand, if each letter 
or group of letters had a line to itself. 

12. And last, but not least, bear in mind that 
phonography means writing by sound ; and that only 
the true sounds of a word should be expressed. 



VOWELS. 

Every consonant contains three places or positions 
for. vowels, namely ; 

Beginning of the consonant, or first place. 

Example ; / has ; t-\ i what. 



14 PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 

Middle of the consonant, or second place. 

Example;") us; / *1 let. 
End of the consonant, or third place. 

Example ;l_ to; 'I read. 

WORD EXERCISE ON VOWELS. 
First-place vowels are a, ah, o, aw. Example; 

>' vi n c c/i r ~i 






Second-place vowels are e, a, u, 5. Example; 

/ /^ -) A N V U 



Nj V 



<w> 
Third-place vowels are i, e, oo, oo. Example; 

L A .) ~\ ^ L/ V I 



J 



S 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 15 

DIPHTHONGS. 

I and Ow may be written in first, second, or third 
place, as is most convenient. 

Example ; x x > _ / ^ \ 9. 

V /v * A /A 



Oi is always written in the first place. 

V^ 

Example ..... \ ^j^* ' 

U is always written in the third place. 

Example- ..... N -f\ V 

Ea, ei, or eb is always written in the third place. 
Example; ...... 



EXERCISE ON DIPHTHONGS, 

? v ) 



r 



Punctuation. A period is expressed thus : x 

o 

A question mark is expressed thus : x 



An initial capital is expressed thus : v^ John. 



16 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



SENTENCES. 
First-place vowels and diphthongs. 



nn 



s\ 



Second-place vowels. 




n 

Third-place vowels and diphthongs. 

</ ). c \. 




PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



17 



L XI 



.) .1 



A 



c u . .1 












I- L/ 



18 PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



RULES FOB PLACING THE VOWELS. 

When a vowel comes between two consonants, 
it is possible to write it either after the first consonant 

or before the second, thus; took, l=- or L_L ; sat, ) 



or 



But first-place vowels should always be written after 
the first consonant; while third-place vowels should be 
written before the following consonant. This is to 
avoid awkwardness in such words as sAara, reel; the 
best, and indeed the only way being to write these 
words according to the principle given above, thus; 



With second-place vowels a compromise is made. 
The long or heavy vowels settle down, as it were, to the 
first consonant, while the short or light vowels fly off' 
to the following consonant. This facilitates the read- 
ing of words in which these vowels have been carelessly 
made thicker or thinner than they should be. 

The above principles are illustrated by the follow- 
ing diagrams : 

LIGHT VOWELS. HEAVY VOWELS. 

II 






PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 19 

RULES. 

First-place vowels are written after the first conso 

/* 

nant. Example; L chalk. 

Second-place heavy vowels are written after the 
first consonant. Example; X\\ robe. 

Second-place light vowels are written before the 
following consonant. Example; //\ rub. 

Third-place vowels are written before the following 
consonant. Example; L*. cheek. 



Write the following words in phonography, being 
careful to make the heavy vowels somewhat thicker 
than the light ones: 

Sat, sought, sit, set, stay, pick, big, beak, net, knit, naught, 
not, fun, vain, vein, mane, name, men, moon, man, numb, 
thank, that, path, faith, rank, once, yet, bay, witch, which, 
what, yes, yard, through, hat, who, him, shut, sharp, vision, 
catch, coach, cake, chase, choose, jug, change, gem, game, 
waste, west, lull, leaf, rill, brook, bank, key, work, play, dog, 
deer, good, friend, ink, pen, sale, sill, pencil. 

Punctuation. A dash is expressed thus; i i 
A hyphen is expressed thus; = 



20 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 






t^^. 



C/| 




V 



\. r 



v 





l v X 






T 



x 




PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 21 



nr \ri u 



N I 



r ). 




.) "= 



u , ^x- u 

') ^ ') (' : 



(. 



y^f-w 

-^ L ^_ C < 
^^^,1 liX),(- 
M C VI , 




PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



C 6 * A 
5 ^ \ i 4 




J .) 

)-,(,- 




UPWARD AND DOWNWARD R. 

R is represented either by 1 written downward, or 

by ^ written upward. 

To make it less likely that upward r, when standing 
alone, should be mistaken for ch, ch is made to slope 
about 60 degrees from the horizontal, and r 30 degrees, 



thus; 



When joined to other letters, ch and r 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 23 

are distinguished by the direction of the stroke, thus; 

""7 v 

/ catch ; s~~**s 



In deciding which r should be used in a word, the 
,; ^following is the 

GENERAL RULE. 
The upward R is the advance guard of a syllable. 

X\. /* / v /* 
. r .. } rye; ^\ I branch; ^~s free. 

The downward R is the rear guard of a syllable. 
Example; v \ ire; 'Y early; 

REMARKS. 

The nucleus, the necessary part of a syllable, is the 
vowel or diphthong; it is this of which upward and 
downward R, are respectively advance and rear guard. 

SV / 
fai-ry \^/ 

The rule for the downward R, however, does not 
apply when it would cause an awkward joining or an 

undecided outline ; as in <s *\ ivere, *\ earth, S\ > 

/-A 

roar, which should always be written I/ / \ 

Nor does the rule apply when it would interfere with 



24 PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 

the compactness of a word, by carrying it too far be- 
low the line. Thus, fortify should never be written 




In a word containing no other consonant but R, with 
a vowel both before and after it, write the downward 

R. Example; array \ 



WORD EXERCISE ON UPWARD AND DOWN- 
WARD R AND CH. 




Write the following words in phonography, 
according to rule for the upward and downward R : 

Tire, right, wrote, tore, door, road, rat, tar, tarry, are, ray, 
array, reap, peer, fire, rough, fur, furrow, sire, rise, arise, farm, 
firm, ring, wring, wringer, rich, arch, yard, Richard, rear, arti- 
choke, wear, sir, rush, chair, share, rash, arm, armor, manner, 
fear, reef, roar, crack, care, cringe, range, danger, fringe, 
where, brook, trunk, crib, cheer, cheery, choir, rare, sour, 
our, hour. 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 25 



II I/ 



VL 



" C 



S> Y 

U \ x 

^ v 



L U *1 UI I. 



CX/ ^ 



vl. , x>. C 



26 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY 



-1 .) .1 n 



n 



*1 



\ 




l-\. 





-7 ^ \ 





PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 27 



/ 

L V 



I 

L V U| , J 




\ .r) ^L v 

~i ' j 



K\ 



(. V/x > ') U ') 



i (. x 



^V \ 



28 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



/ 
-J -1 



n 




(. 



*- 



1-2 



C. 




')(. 




* X 



" 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



29 



\xi L 



) K , .1 




V / ') M. ') .1 



/ 




v ^ J 



(. 



"V L (.-CX) , " .1 l^ I. ^ r- 



30 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY 



cc 



V. 



)- (. ~v) , *1 vi b 

^ I- , ^ 

A f 

r 





( " 

c vy, 



(. 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 31 

UPWARD AND DOWNV7ARD L. 

To this letter the same general rule applies as to 
r i.e., the upward form is used when a vowel follows 
it, and the downward when a vowel precedes. 

But this rule, however general in its application to 
Z, cannot be made absolute, as in the case of the letter 
r. The reason is that both forms of the r have a for- 
ward motion, while with the I one form is downward 
and backward. The latter is a check on the writer's 
forward impetus; and in this way, he loses not only 
speed, but time, as the hand has to travel so much 
farther to the next word. Compare the outlines of 



\_ with 




with 



The rules given below have been found the most 
available. But in cases where they seem to conflict, 
the student should bear in mind that he can scarcely go 
wrong, if he maintains, in general, a forward movement 

of the hand, as in the word ^/ shall. 



Rule I. Initial Z, followed by a horizontal con- 
sonant, is written downward if a vowel precedes it, 

and upward if a vowel follows. Example; ( elk; 



f leak ; C^^ elm ; / lame. 



32 PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 

Exception. Such words as allay iny, illness, should be 
written /* f V, to agree with their primitives 



Rule II. Final I, preceded by /, v, upward r, up- 
ward h, stroke w, or stroke y, is written downward if 
a vowel precedes, and upward if a vowel follows. 
Example; . 

^/ool;\*J folly; >' real; ' really. 

Rule III. When final I is preceded by an explodent, 
and two vowels come between, write I downward. 

Example ; t ^/s\ jewel. Such words as Poll, Polly, are 



written V N/ 

Rule IV. Final I preceded by n should be written 

*v 

downward. Example; only i. 

Rule V. In doubtful cases write I upward. 

WORDS WITH UPWARD AND DOWNWARD L. 

V 




PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



83 



V 



V 



/' 
f ) 





j .) <y -(/ A 

w^-(x .7. , LV 



'\ 



\. 



A. 



s 



y 



L 



, 
; .1 



. v 

\.X 

U I- 



34 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY 



~ J V 



V 



x 



VI JT , - 



, C 




V, ' 




r c 



). (. 






v 



C < 



< . / 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 3o 

THE ASPIRATE, H. 
The aspirate sound, h, is generally expressed by the 

upward stroke O or the downward /. But as the 
aspirate in English occurs only when preceding a vowel, 
it may be expressed by a small dot placed before the 

..i .y-- 

vowel to which it belongs. Thus; I hat; ' hole; 

v \ hope; s~*\ home. 

It may also be expressed by a tick (which is the 
downward h contracted) before ra, upward Z, downward 

r and s. Example; s hum; ir hill; v i hire; 

) Am. 

This tick, however, cannot be used before m or / 
when a first-place vowel follows h ; because, in rapid 
writing, vowel and tick might be carelessly blended 

into one. Therefore, do not write hall, ham, thus, **5r 
*- ** ; but thus, f *' x 

RULES FOR THE USE OF THE ASPIRATE. 
Rule I. The downward stroke / is used in words 
which contain no other consonant. Example ; / he ; 

./v high. When h is joined to another consonant, use 
whichever form is most convenient. 



36 PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 

Rule II. The dot aspirate cannot be used after a 

^1\ ..^Lx\ 

consonant. Thus, write unhappy \ not \. 

Rule III. The tick h cannot be used before m or I 
when a first-place vowel follows h. 

Rule TV. The tick h is used before I and r in such 
words as hill v ; hail r hair i ; and the upward 



stroke h in such words as hilly 6 ; hollow 

/' 

hairy o 

Note. The upward h may be joined to _p, , c/>, 
thus; XV ieAa//; tf3. Tahiti; ^L Jehovah; 
to / and *A thus; ^>o .Fo/a'; to s and s/i thus; 

o <f , 1^ and s^ should be written first, 
and the circle finished when vocalizing, to w, thus; 

* 

^L^Q J unliin'je ; and to w, y, upward r, and upward 

. 
^, thus ; ^/^C ^ Rehob. 

The downward A is joined to cA thus; V Jehu; 

A 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 37 

to 5, sA, thus; \ y 1 , first writing 1 and J and 

completing the circle when vocalizing, and to p, k, m, 
n, ?, and upward or downward r, thus; l /- x l cohort; 

\> boo-hoo ; * ^ Mahomet ; filr* Elihu ; /CZ-k. 
% '! 

Rehum ; **\i Aarhaas. In speaking of outlines, 



; **\i 
J 



whatever relates to the light characters relates to the 
corresponding heavy ones also. 

WORD EXERCISE ON H. 




Write the following words in phonography, using 
either the dot or tick ^, wherever it is possible : 

Hit, whom, hair, hare, hoe, hill, hilly, hero, hum, whose, 
happy, Hamlet, harm, hand, hook, house, hull, Homer, haste, 
honey, high, hate, help, heed, hush, hath, has, hark. 

448400 



38 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



> 



I 'V </' 









>\ (f 



C ) 



\ L 



I. \. - 

-\. 



I- 

L. 
V 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



39 



W AND Y DIPHTHONGS. 

The sounds of W and Y, like the sound of //, occur 
only before vowels. They are called coalescents; be- 
cause they coalesce or blend so readily with the vowels 
they precede, that it is almost impossible to mark by a 
pause where one sound ends and the other begins. 

By prefixing the sound of w or y to each of the 
simple vowels, we have a series of diphthongs, repre- 
sented by the following signs : 

\^ 

wa we wi wo wu woo wah way wee waw wo woo 



ya ye yt yo yu yoo yah yay yee yaw yo yoo 



Each set of the above diphthongs is formed from a 
small circle cut by a single diameter, the circle for the 
w series being halved vertically, and that for the y 
series horizontally. 



DISSYLLABIC DIPHTHONGS. 
A diphthong is the blending of two vowel sounds 

V 

in one. Example ; i, which is composed of the two 

sounds ah-ee. 

There are, however, dissyllabic diphthongs, in which 



40 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



each element is sounded. To this class belong the W 
and Y series, and also the following group : 



ah-t a- ee-i aw-t o-t oo-f 

This series of signs may represent diphthongs com- 
posed of an accented long vowel followed by any short 



\*s 

vowel except oo. Example ; 
f ^^, coil, cawing. 



clayey, chaos ; 



A diphthong may sometimes be joined to a conso- 
nant, as in the words, \ war, Y idle. 



WORD EXERCISE ON DIPHTHONGS. 

4 *a <u J 



7C 



f L b 
\_1, 




PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 41 



< < VI 




L, 

V, k^x / 

IX) ^ cl , C. .) V} 

( \ri ,i v 
~^ ^ -s*, ^ j'^-icc k 

U "1 (. ^ \ 0, 

,( 





42 PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 




Vl 




* 1 
I ~ 








PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 43 



" 



yu M ^ c \ 
, ) ^ r v\ 



( vy) /> Y 



c ( 



(. 



LC 



* ) C "1 x -t 1 

( I ,6 
./ > 



y^j c 



j 



i- \. 



44 



PlliMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



1 </ I- C c, VI x >> ( 

vi 

\ A 



(. 



nr 



3 ) r 

Li , 

IL 



V 

\X1 



\ 




VJ,1 



c 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



45 



u - 



(. * 






. K) 



U x 



cc 



;j 



V 

) 



C c< 




" 



( , .( ' VO./T 



/TV. 



C ) , (. 



)=-) 



..) 



46 PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 

PUNCTUATION, ETC. 

Nearly all marks of punctuation are written as they 
are in longhand. However, 

The Period is expressed by a small cross, thus ; x 

The Interrogation Point is written thus, * to distin- 
guish it from a certain abbreviated word used in re- 
porting. 

The Exclamation Point is written thus, x for the 
same reason. 

The Dash is written thus ; I 1 or i i 

The Parentheses should be made a little more than 

twice the size of the \ ith and the es / ; ( thus 1 

An initial capital is shown thus ; O ) s 

" " .( 

Accent is shown by writing a small cross near the 

I XI 

accented vowel. Example; August' x7; Au'yust y 

Emphasis is shown, as in longhand, by drawing one 
or more lines underneath. However, a single line under 
a single word should be waved, thus, to distin- 
guish it from K. 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 47 

The Exclamations Ah! Eh! Oh! should be written 

t t t 

x x * 



A caret ( A ) is expressed thus ; 1 



NOMINAL CONSONANTS. 

It is sometimes desired to express a vowel or diph- 
thong without a consonant. 

In such a case, I "T \ may be used as nominal 

I w *]* 

consonants. Thus, we may write *L E for Etten, or *f 

|yp 

JL for Andrew. Or the vowel (if a dash) may be struck 
through the stem of the nominal consonant. Example; 

T 1 "* _L ^ XL 

for Orra; T 7 for Undine: y for /o. 

// 

The nominal consonant may also be joined to another 
consonant, and written in any direction, thus; 

. Jones. 




Note. In writing only the initial sound of words 
(especially proper names), where a doubt may arise 
as to what is the corresponding longhand letter, it is 
advisable to write the first two sounds of the word. 
Or, if desired, the sounds which make up the longhand 
name of the initial may be expressed. 

Thus, the initial of the name Cymbeline should not 

be written merely ) x as it would be taken for an S ; 

a 

it should be written either /. y or ) 9 ^ (Cy or C). 



48 PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 

DOUBLE LETTERS. 

The following double letters are frequently used, as 
being more convenient than their corresponding single 
characters. They are the first steps to that shortening 
of phonographic writing which is called reporting. 

The student should, therefore, not make use of them 
until he is thorough master of the simple alphabet. 



^<^. r 

kw gw lr P| m Jj wl whl. 

J .r 

With the exception of wl and whl, the two sounds 
which each character represents cannot be separated by 
a vowel or diphthong. Thus, well, while, may be written 



; but rich, map, must be written out in full, 
thus; </ ' ~\ 

WORD EXERCISE ON DOUBLE LETTERS. 

r < 




\A 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 




r\ 



\f x 



I " 



') O C 

x^ c 



V U/1 X ' \Jk ~K \A 




i- c 




50 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



*1 X^( (.< / 

v* 




-) (. kX I- ^ ") I/) x " ). 




1 , 9 r ">i < 

// 



(. 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 51 



v- \ \. -n , 





\. -n 

' 



(. \_ ^ 'I 



i \ < 



i: "i LX^ j 



iy (j K\ 




v x ( 



52 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



t 




c- vi 







r 1 w 



V ') )' -3 ,"_ C 




" 



" 



,;. 
vi 




READING EXERCISES. 




53 



READING EXERCISES. 



55 



V! 



A *Z 

A| 






I f 

'^~*\ X 






) </ 1 r -L 



X 



\ 

\ * ' ) 



c 



, c 




/v 9 /v 



^\ x 



56 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY 



C 



-) 




> (. ^ W v "3 b- ^ 




A! x 



^x \ * 



n .) 



') U ') 



). - 1 



READING EXERCISES. 57 



1 ,^ nr 



, v 




\ X 

0/1 "V 



." 



\ ( */r\ , /} v\ / rn 

x (j n c^ ^ | -i 

N4-LV 



*4 , \ 



58 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 






',). I (. 



) 



I.. I 



I. ^ .1 )- 



I 

^^ *- 



.1 .) 



-r 



, 1 (. 





o 



READING EXERCISES. 



59 



U 




C 




IT y t * 
\ (. 

\ 

)- 



\ __ < >/- 



" c ^i , x L c 




^yq -(. 
I 

^ ^ *Vv c u< 

\OK ^ '/ 



> 



60 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY 



<,' I' I- C , (. 

v 






- I. (. - 



L C k , "1 .) 

Z 






BEADING EXERCISES. 



61 



\. ') /V ') 







, 



. > ^ K 



C v ; 



c. \ 



c 



, i"i 



62 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



/ 



VI 




\ 



r 



^ s 

i. A! x c 

M 






c. - 



'\ ( jl 



v 



-r i- < 

, V 



READING EXERCISES. 



63 



C 



\ V 



(. 



VJ ^ I A 




.1 ^ (. K 




64 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY 




)- ./ Y^ u -\ 



L xx 



1 f 



V lA 



XI 



V, 



v ) x. 



READING EXERCISES. 



(. ^ 



)' 



* 

(. 



, L: 



X . 




-C/ 




L(, 






66 PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



x>- 



S 



\ VM- 
(. x>= 



' nr 



C ( 



I V 



tfc 



)- 3X1 ') (. 




c 



)- < 



L 





V ^ 

)- /, , 



READING EXERCISES. 



67 



^ 



" 



. , 



U^v ') /{ ') , 

' (XI X) x 




I 



" 



I * 



\ v 

(. x)=\ 



68 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 







\ 

u 



L (. X , 




(. 



, 



(. 




( 



V 




, < V 




. vi 





READING EXERCISES. 



6!) 



c x)=V 





u i- 



tt 




- 



-) 



- 




t 



V 




l/) 





70 PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 







, c- P c 

M ^^-,^ C 
*i (. x> 





C (' 



\r-i 

f\ ** ' X 





READING EXERCISES. 



71 





V) L 



\r-i 

x L 



\ 



c 








c. 



). - vo 
/ *\ SA -^ c nr\r~{ 



72 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



c 





/CV. 



j (. \ri 

VO L V) 



C ex/ U 




Vk 



c 






READING EXERCISES. 







' IA 



9 ^ ^r ' 



rtr 



i r 

) 



. c \ 





v_> (. tXL X n 

^ v/ ^ 






PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY 



\( 

-| .) 




.) 



V) 




c 




(. 



u L v c- o> c 



K ^x- 



READING EXERCISES. 



75 



-\ .1 , ;. 



nr 



.1 




Z 



(. \ 

o 






(. 



.) 



.ex < \n ^ ( N 

X .1 PI ^ v-^ (. 



76 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 





.1 X 



U I- 'V ' 



.1 



L ). <- ^ 
-^ \. V 



(,' ^V W VO L VO , 




V 



READING EXERCISES. 



77 



(. 



') 




') ( 



C. X)- I. 




(. k, ;, .> (. 



^1 X 





C. (/ 

-A S \ 

Al 

" ). L 





78 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



*) 








( -^ 

.) 



. l x .1 .) f 

^ L V V , ) 




(. \ ^ VL 



READING EXERCISES 



79 



c 




X ./ -<x 



> - x n 

) 





t < 

/c\. ^> 



<. /T 





80 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



, ') 



/ ^ (. _ 
-^ c 



. c 



(. 



./-<y 




, <</ .) c 




READIXG EXERCISES. 



81 



, (. VL/O "v. c 



</ 



X\ L (.< 






C 



t 



O 




) ./I 

// 

5 , .1 .) ^ (j- T- 

\/UO L 



-I - 




V 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY 



A 



, . 




i .) </ , 6 



iT ^ C '\ X A 



) 




c 




c c/- 
)- v<- < 




READING EXERCISES. 



83 






A 



^ "V .1 X I- (. < 
_/!-*. -> C 



n <rf(\~ ^. 
^ "V 1 

V A x 



I 

v ( 




(. 




(/- 




X 



/ /X , C 




84 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



t/.) (. ) 

) n ) c 







') ^> (. 



READING EXERCISES 



85 



L\. 

v v 



, VL/0 f l 



c > 



c 




r 



86 



PRIMARY PHONOGRAPHY. 



b 




LC 



(./) 



I 3 




^ )- 




// 



TESTIMONIALS. 



From PROF. JAMES C. BOOTH, LL.D., of the U. S. Mint, Philadelphia, 
and author of "The Phonographic Instructor' 1 '' of 1855. 

Miss IDA C. CRADDOCK, 

Teacher of Phonography in Girard College : 

MY DEAR Miss CRADDOCK : Having been shown your 
" Primary Phonography," in its then unfinished state, by 
Mr. Holman, the Actuary of the Franklin Institute, I was 
so much pleased with it, that I requested him to send me a 
copy of the work when it should be completed. 

I have now examined the finished work, and must express 
myself in highly commendatory terms of its execution, in 
several respects. 

i. As a means of deeply impressing young persons with 
such a knowledge and use of Elementary Phonography, that 
in time their skill in writing it will seem almost intuitive. 
2. The mode of your accomplishing such an end, the 
successive development of the simple, unabridged mode of 
writing you have roost happily effected. 3. Your mode 
of throwing more interest into the usual dry details of such 
a study or practice by your invention of interesting narra- 
tions embracing at the same time moral instruction 
has been to my mind most successful and valuable. 4. 
Lastly, the bold and clear type, and general typographical 
beauty of the work are specially worthy of commendation, 
when the present tendency is too prevalent to cheapen 
books by small type, to the injury of sight in the future. 

Respectfully yours, 

JAMES C. BOOTH. 



From JAMES A. KIRKPATRICK, formerly Professor of Phonography 
and Book-Keeping at the Boys' High School of Philadelphia. 

Having examined very carefully Miss Craddock's " Pri- 
mary Phonography," I take great pleasure in recommending 
it as a class-book for beginners. It removes an obstruction 
which I constantly felt while a teacher, and which, with 

'very great labor, I to some extent overcame. The obstruc- 
tion alluded to was the constant desire to press on to quick 
writing before mastering the rudiments; and the conse- 
quence was that many became discouraged, and relinquished 

the hope of success. This work seems to be designed to 
teach thoroughly the first principles of the art, without 
troubling the beginners with the pernicious thought of a 
"royal road to learning." 

With about twenty years' experience in teaching pho- 
nography in the Philadelphia High School, I unhesitatingly 
pronounce this, in my estimation, the best book ever printed 
for the use of beginners. Its unchanging characters for 
simple sounds and its interesting exercises new, and speci- 
ally fitted to illustrate and exemplify the particular lesson 
under consideration make it invaluable to the student. 
All contractions and puzzling composite word-signs are ex- 
cluded, so that the temptation to proceed too rapidly and 
too superficially is entirely removed. It is well calculated 
to give thorough instruction in the rudiments, before at- 
tempting fast writing. 

The paper used, the engraving of the illustrations, and 
the lessons inculcated in the reading exercises, are all that 
can be desired. 

JAMES A. KIRKPATRICK. 



From ROBERT PATTERSON, author of "The Reporter's Assistant" of 

1850, and Secretary and Treasurer of the Fidelity Insurance 

Trust and Safe Deposit Co. } Philadelphia. 

Having examined carefully the work on " Primary Pho- 
nography " by Ida C. Craddock, I find it a clear and prac- 
tical introduction to the principles and practice of that art, 
which I am sure must be of great use to both pupil and 
teacher. The theory of instruction on which it is based 
appears to be correct, namely, thorough drill in the ele- 
ments of the system, before developing the complexities 
which, however needful they may be to secure brevity and 
compactness of form, yet, if begun too soon, hinder in- 
stead of forwarding the pupil's progress, and in the end 
lead to the abandonment of the attempt to acquire the art. 

ROBERT PATTERSON. 

From PROF. GEO. J. BECKER, author of ^Becker's System of Book- 
Keeping" and Professor of Drawing, Penmanship 
and Book-Keeping in Girard College. 

I have examined with much pleasure the work on "Pri- 
mary Phonography" by Miss Ida C. Craddock, and can 
recommend it with confidence to students of the art, as 
possessing a higher degree of merit than I have found in 
any other work on the subject. The explanations are clear 
and concise, and the illustrations given are ample, so that 
any one of ordinary intelligence can study the subject with 
advantage without the aid of a teacher. 

The little stories which it contains are written in "full 
style" of phonography, and are especially of great value to 
the learner, as this Primary Style, without abbreviations, 
lays the foundation for the rapid writing as practised bv 
reporters. 

The work is also well adapted for class instruction. 

GEO. J. BECKER. 



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